Les Celtibères... Sous ce nom se cache un peuple parfois méconnu mais d'une importance considérable dans l'histoire de l'Ibérie. Cette péninsule borée par une mer et un océan, la partie la plus au sud-ouest du continent aurasiatique, fut de tous temps un carrefour de civilisations, et le point de passage traditionnel vers le continent africain à l'ouest. L'ibérie disposait à une époque ancienne (néolithique) de peuples autochtones dispersés, des colonies s'installèrent sur sa façade océanique à l'ère classique, grecs à l'est (vers 600 av. jc.) et phéniciens au sud-est. La Culture de Tartessos est l'une des plus avançées des civilisations Ibériques, remontant à l'âge du bronze. Pendant des siècles des royaumes se constituèrent et s'affrontèrent, et des mouvement migratoires venus du nord s'y produisirent. Il y eut en effet plusieurs vagues Celtiques importantes venant des pyrrhénées vers 1000 av.jc. jusqu'en 700 av.jc. environ, aboutissant à un repeuplement Celtique de l'ouest (pays lusitanien) et du centre-nord de l'ibérie. On trouvait, outre les Lusitaniens, les Galiciens et Asturiens, et les Celtibères au centre. L'est se composait de vieilles civilisations pré-celtiques influencées par la caulture grecque et la culture phénicienne. Les Celtibères et autres peuples connectés comme les Celtici au sud, étaient de culture Celte mais avaient évolué localement de manière relativement autonome.
L'histoire de l'Ibérie commença à prendre un tournant décisif après la première guerre Punique, perdu par les Carthaginois dont le généralissime, Hamilcar Barca, entreprit la conquête pour compenser la perte de la Sicile. Il mourut avantd'avoir pu réaliser son rêve, mais une grande partie de la péninsule fit partie de l'empire Carthaginois, et nombre de royaumes liés par traités. Cette riche plate-forme allait servir de tremplin à Hannibal, son fils, pour comme il l'avait juré, mettre fin à l'hégémonie de Rome. Les Celtibères entrant dans l'orbite Punique lui furent fidèles, et sans doute ses meilleurs mercenaires. Les Celtibères étaient le résultat du mixage de populations entre Celtes et autochtones depuis des siècles. Ils gardaient l'impétuosité traditionnelle des Celtes et une bonne partie de leur armement et tactiques. L'épée par exemple était toujours Celte, la Falcata restait l'arme des Ibères proprement dit. Sur le plan vestimentaire, l'abandon des braies était une autre caractéristique. Les Celtibères portaient à la place des Femoralla, sorte de caleçons longs. Plusieurs peuples Celtibères dominaient : Les Arevaci, Belli, Titti, et Lusones. Ces royaumes s'appuyaient sur un réseau d'Oppidum fortifiés. Fidèles alliés de Carthage, les Celtibères ne furent "pacifiés" que vers 179 av. jc. et définitivement soumis après la défaite de leur allié Romain durant la guerre civile, Sertorius, en 72 av.jc.
En tant que groupe ethnique dominant, les Celtibères ont toute latitude pour soumettre les autres peuples de la péninsule, exercer un rapport de force avec les gourmands Cathaginois au sud et tenir en respect des Gaulois toujours entreprenant au Nord... Protégés par leur frontière naturelle, les Pyrhhénées, les Celtibères ont une plate-forme idéale pour lancer une expansion en Europe comme en Afrique et à l'ouest de la méditerranée.
This was 2310 years ago...
The Celtiberians... under this term were hidden one of the most influencial culture in iberian history. Iberia was ever a crossing point between west Europe and Africa, and was inhabited sincethe neolithic by several proto-civilizations. One of the most famous during the bronze age, was the Tartessian culture, a product of the phoenician colonization in the south, largely spread around. Later, in 600-500 bc, some greek colonies were settled on the eastern coast. The word "iberian", known in greek cutlure since 500 bc. was probably derived of the river Ebro, a natural frontier between the new settlers and the whole peninsula. Around 1000 bc to 700 bc, several massive wave of celtic invaders changed the face of the peninsula : They settled in the west, north, and center, and mixed with local populations, giving them the name of "Celtiberians". The last were known to have been separated between the Lusitanians, Galicians, Asturians, Celtici, and Celtiberians proper, mostly to the center and north of the peninsula. Amongst the lasts, the Arevaci beeing the most powerful, others beeing the Titti, Belli, and Lusones. The Arevaci dominated the whole center of the peninsula thanks to a web of powerful fortified Oppida.
The Celtiberians differed from the Iberian proper, by several ways : This was a bellicist culture, making and a large place to weapons. The Celtiberian typical sword was by no means, similar to the Celtic one, beeing double-edged and tall. Their main shields were the Scutum. Their most popular helmets were the tall, pointed Halstatt models. But Unlike the Celts, they wore no trousers or "braca" but short sleeves similar to the later roman Femoralla. They were also given leather jackets and bronze plates or bronze scale armors instead of chainmail, which was lately adopted. Local iberian caetra had a strong inluence over western Lusitanians who used very large versions. Masks of war were also used by these populations. The Celtiberians allied themselves with Hamilcar Barca when he landed in southern spain in order to conquer a new empire after the loss of Sicilia and several other islands in the western mediterranean. From 236 to his death in 228 bc, he gained the Carthaginians an impressive territory, both by arms and diplomacy. The Celtiberians prove themselves truthful allies of his son Hannibal when he took command of the army and launched his campaign against Saguntum. They proved also their skills and courage, beeing probably the best mercenaries in Hannibal's army in Italy and even in Africa.
With their bellicose behaviour, mixed armaments and tactics, a territory protected on its only land frontier by a mountain ridge, rich and fertile lands, abundant with iron, the best in Europe, the Celtiberians are the best placed for an hegemony in the whole peninsula, over other iberians, fellow Lusitanians, Galicians and Asturians, to hold in respect the Gauls beyond the Pyrrhenees and in the south-east, the ever ambitious Carthaginians...
IOUIES GESSOI : Iberian levies: They were iberian natives from the celtiberian kingdoms, living there long before the first halstatt era invasion of the peninsula. Although they mixed with local populations, they were seen by the new masters as peasants, even slaves. But they could from some valuable militias, equipped with Gasso (celtic Gaiso) spears and with a short training, to act as a rearguard an local militia.
IOUIES ASSEGAI (Young javelinmen) : The tragula was a specific javelin also used extensively by some iberian skirmishers. It was light, but characterized by a long iron spearhead, beeing a long-range weapon, which could be throwed up to 80 meters thanks to the armentum. These Celtiberian skirmishers were rather young but naturally gifted for ambush and guerilla warfare. They have of course no armor but a small shield in wood or wicker, and they avoid to fight too close, but if needs, they have a long dagger or short sword or the celtic style. Some would have been enlisted in habnibal's army to complement his numidians.
IOUIES HOSTATIR (Young spearmen) : They formed the bulk of the infantry. Most of them were peasants, trained during a long time during the preparation of anuy campaign, just as the celtc bagaudas. Like them, they could afford minimal equipment, as a hasta spear, and some javelins, with a dagger for desperate close-combat. Their only protection was a light round, mass-product helmet, and a wood scutum, but some would probably have a leather cap instead. Disciplined and versatile, they can hold their ground in any battle, and against various threats, both cavalry and infantry. Against professional swordsmen although, they clearly leak training and protection. Without support, they could not be thrown in an offensive against experienced troops, but their sheer numbers are used both for psychological effect and to push forward or to absorb enemy offensives.
LATRONES (BANDITS - GUERILLA RAIDERS) : In a rugged and mountaineous landscape like northern Iberia, banditry was common, and these free men, although unpredictable would have been used as an auxiliary infantry. The axe was not a current weapon for the iberians, the soil was rich in various metals and afford a large number of quality swords of all kinds. But the local celts of ancient stock were still living like ancient Halstatt celts, and axe was still efficient in ambush and close-combat. So these troops, although better suited for harrassing the enemy rearguard in small, independant units, they also could perform well offensives and break enemy shields in order to make a breakthrough. A good leader would ever find the proper use for these valuable hard-living, rough men.
HEBEDON FALARICATI : The hebedon "mature men" were the bulk of any celtiberian campaign infantry, to distinguish about the Iouies. These were handling a particularly devastating weapon, common to the iberians and related also to the very impressive Soliferum : It was the Falarica, an heavy javelin with a long hampered iron spearhead. It was first described by the Carthaginians, which soon have to deal with them during Hamilcar's campaign, and were closed to the Roman Pila and several other heavy javelins. To have more piercing power, and to be used also as an incendiary siege weapon, the falarica was often composed of a 90 cm long iron head combined to a near long wooden shaft and a narrow sharp tip. It was armor-piercing and the soliferum seems to have been derived from this weapon.
HEBEDON GESSOI : These traditional warriors used the celtic combination of spears "gaesos" of several size, both to be thrown and used as an attack weapon, and the long celtic sword. They used also the Scutum or a caetra. They were well-protected, bearing bronze discs and helmets. They were more common in the north.
HEBEDON LANCEARI : Amongst the most impressive Celtiberian warriors, experienced if not veterans, these men were heavy spearmen, using the "Lancea", an heavy spear which was later called as such by the Romans. It was derived from the celtic gaesos but quite more bigger, with an impressive 60 cm bronze spearhead. Such weapons were heavy and difficult to manage in close combat, and these warriors were often assigned defensive duties, and were especially efficient against cavalry. The Celtiberians, like most of the Celts, used shieldwalls tactics. When the enemy was too close, they fought with their wide and heavy long celtic sword, with deadly effect. Well-protected, they could have been equipped with the classic bronze plate.
SEKISAMOS DEVOTIO : The famous Devotio (here, litteraly, the "strongest", devouted client-warriors) were not precisely described, the only thing we can be sure was about their devouted life-long service alonsgide their noble master. They were "companions" more than pure bodyguards, although not from aristocratic lineage. They were probably equipped with the best equipments, including very large bronze plates or scale armors. Their main weapon was the sword, and as they were chosen, they were the best warriors around, probably beeing chosen to fight as "champions" in the purest celtic tradition.
UIROS UERAMOS : Celtiberian nobles (here : litt. "the superior ones") were of course the best units around. Raised for war since their youth, brave, highky skilled and highly resistant, they had few that can match them, sword in hand. They are at the same time "champions" and chieftains, often beeing at the head of their village. They had their own retinue, and they can muster quickly a warband in order to serve their king. Contrary to the lusitanian and gallaecian nobles, they used short trousers and scutums rather than bronze caetra, and a very high quality longsword. Celtic longsword crafted in ancient iberia, were of very high standard, due to the better quality of metals. Celtiberian nobles of lesser condition were clients of more powerful lords, others were village chieftains. But all were wonderfully equipped and very impressive warriors, combining the hight stature, longsword and modern equipment of the Celtiberians with the valiant impetuosity and sens of honor of the iberians. They were, just like gallic nobles on the other part of the alps, spearmen fightning in a solid block and were fierce and feared opponents in close-combat. They had their own client warriors, all well-equipped and well-trained, including a mighty band of "devotio", fightning to the death just like soldurii.
EPONES CAETRANANN : Celtiberian cavalry was very limited, so that local iberian tribes were used for their auxiliary cavalry. The mounted caetrati slightly differed from usual ones, they were close-combat cavalry units, very fast and prone to make skirmishes as to fight in the melee. Versatile, and agile, there were also used as scouts.
EPONES LANCIAROS : Another kind of iberian-celtiberian cavalry, these were javelin, sword, and spear cavalry. The lancea was used for repeated charges.
EPONES GESSOI (Celtiberian Medium cavalry) : Also call "Scutanan Epones" or "Equites scutari" by the romans, they were a true celtiberian mounted unit, all bearing the scutum, fast and agile, capable of fightning with Gessoi (Gaiso medium javelins), and a spear, but also their celtic longsword of a falcata for close-combat.
EPONES DEVOTIO (Iberian cataphract cavalry) : This famous heavy cavalry was known through vase paintings, which described a mounted version of the Loricati devotio, heavy swordsmen bearing a short scale armor, and a thick fabric protection upon a leather cuirass, generaly ending with caracteristical flaps. They were also protected by a crested helmet, a caetra, and carried a lancea and a falcata. Their horses were entirely cladded in chainmail, and their charge was probably unstoppable. This kind of client heavy cavalry was probably the heavyest in all western europe.
UIROS DEVOTIO LANCEARI EPONES (early bodyguards) : Still a Halstatt-style noble cavalry, with a relatively short Lancia, a bronze scaled or two-pieces armor, and a bronze and gold helmet with a rim in the old style. They also have greaves, a roundshield or a scutum for close combat, and can fighton foot id needs, with a double-edge medium sword.
UIROS DEVOTIO LANCEARI EPONES (Late bodyguard) : Few changes but perhaps a more flexible chainmail, a more suitable and richly embossed and plumed montefortino helmet, a very longsword, and a longer Lancia. Such cavalry was still a protecting bodyguard of the King, a small bunch of client noblemen and family relatives. They were feared and highly trusted, able to fight on foot if needs.
IOUIES CALLAECI : Young militiamen from Galicia (north-eastern spain). This atlantic, wet, cold country always has a strong celtic culture, typically Q-Celtic (same family of the gaelic and irish languages).
HEBEDON CALLAECI : These mature and proven warriors were robust Galician infantrymen, recruit on strenght and used like Celtic "batoroi", to smash enemy's shields and allow to other troops to breakthrough. This was a dangerous task, requiring both fearless bravery and uncommon endurance...
IBERANANN ASSEGAI : Iberian levied skirmishers. Young men equipped with some tragula light, long-range javelins and a witcker roundshield. Agility and long distance were their surviving keys.
IBERIAN SLINGERS : Although less famous than the Balearic ones, they were mosty shepherds, skiled with their weapon, and capable to inflict serious injuries if not death. Contrary to the archers, their ammunition was virtually endless, although some lead bullets could be lethal at far greater distance... Archers were more current to the north of Iberia, but slingers could be recruited ib the biggest part of the country, due to the dry climate and rocky terrain.
UIROS CAETRANANN : Iberian Falcata swordsmen, equipped with the famous caetra small roundshield. This was used also by the celtiberians. The bread and butter of the light infantry, these were extremely current and probably formed the bulk of the assault, backed with some Soliferati launchers, as these Caetrati have only Gasso javelins. These well-equipped infantrymen were completed by younger ones, equipped with a leather cap instead, often crested, but no cardiophylax (chest bronze disc). The caetra was very thick and well-built but also very small. It required a very good agility to be really protective but can use as a shock weapon with great efficience. The roundshield was common also to Goidelic infantrymen in iberia and share probably the same pre-halstatt origin.
HEBEDON SCUTANANN: The bread and butter of any iberian battle line, they were an impressive assault infantry, able to crush any infantry while preceding their melee by an heavy load of javelins, launched at medium range. The Iberians used generally two javelins, as they were too heavy to take three of them and to held them in one hand while handling the scutum also. They were not particulary wealthy, but using bronze plates as protections, often on a leather jacket, and protective iberian belt with bronze plaques. They managed to use affordable leather helmets, which were described to be crested.
SOLIFERATAN DEVOTIO : Elite scutari swordsmen trained to use the terrible soliferum iron heavy javelin. It was known to be shield and armor piercing, even both in the same time, including bronze armors. They were equipped with bronze helmets, a large scutum, and even Iberian greaves, which were shorter than greek-style greaves. In close combat they relied upon their heavy falcata. Their skills and weapons made them a costly but highly effective infantry, able to crush the first lines and open breaches to be exploited.
If facing capture, many warriors took lethal poison rather than fall into the hands of enemies: extracted from the plant Ranunculus sardonia, it caused the dead man's lower jaw to set in a rictus resembling a sardonic grin -an especially unnerving sight.
IBERANANN HOSTATIR : The spearmen were always useful, beeing able to keep at a distance any cavalry and infantry. Their medium hasta spears were not often easy to manage in close-combat, as their falcata did. Spearmen were generally older and high morale troops, beeing able to resist any assault with discipline and thoughness. The scutum was the only reasonable choice for these slow-paced troops, under fire during a long time. So that their scutums were thicks, of hight quality and relatively heavyer and wider than usual.
IBERANANN HOSTATIR DEVOTIO : They were picked-up spearmen, clients, generally better equipped and with better morale, experience and training as well. They were still highly efficient as defensive troops in a static or slow advance tactic, but they were capable to form the same phalanx-like formations to support the elites. They were not available in great numbers but protected their masters at the rearguard.
IBERANANN UIRAMOS : Iberian nobles. Wonderful warriors, they were given a bronze caetra, and impressive crested or plumed helmet with feathers, a caetra or a gladius and two falarica, the famous all-metal wielded javelin. We don't know if they finally adopted the chainmail as main protection. The tradition was, to have a leather armor completed with a chest disc, generally wide and decorated. The thick bronze belt was another protaction, as the pteruges. Helmets were often of greek-style, with impressive crests rather than plumes. Like the Celtic cheiftains, these high crests were used as a rally point for their clients warriors.
ILERGETANN AMBAKARO : These very impressive warriors were given a bronze armor or the Perponto (a mixed structure linen, wool, and leather straps armour), a falcata, the Bucula face-mask, Gesso light javelins, a Rhanda dagger and a small shield, the Coetra (similar to the Caetra). They were devouted to their landlord, and bound religiously with a swear of loyalty. It was a crack infantry, although very costly.
ORETANANN HOSTATIR : These Edetanian warriors used a lancea, gesso javelins, and a Rhanda dagger. They were protected by a cone-shaped helmet, a light scutum, and were disciplined and agile.
TURDETANAN HOSTATIR : Spearmen using the greek Dory, these southern iberians, influenced by both Carthaginian and greek tactics, acted like thureoporoi in Celtiberian service.
OLCADIAN FALARICATI : The olcadians were another great people, famous for their leather and fabric, cock-crested style caps. They used falcata and probably scutums in Celtiberian service, and the impressive falarica medium-range metal spear.
VACCAEI CAETRANANN : These light infantrymen were Vaccaei, a great celtiberian people living in the north-west, neighbouring the Lusones. For some authors, they were like bloodbrothers, although decribed as another southern kingdom. They were recents invaders intermarried with locals of ancient celtic origin. For the commoners, javelins and a gesso spear were the most affordable equipment. This made them versatile and agile enough to play skirmishes.
GESTIKAPOINANN : Skilled spearmen, using the current large Lusitanian shield derived from the caetra, but quite bigger, and the lancea spear, but also a longsword for close-combat. Elites were were also equipped with the Bucula war mask. These average lusitanian spearmen were well-trained, protected by a leather cap and additional protections. They were perfect for holding the ground as an anchor in any battlefield, blocking enemy cavalry and infantry with great efficience.
LUSOTANANN AMBAKARO : These elites swordsmen amon the Lusitanians were in fat devotio warriors, chosen and equipped like wealthy warriors they were, and highly skilled, if not deadly at both long distances, thanks to their Falaricati all-wielded javelins, and an heavy falcata. Their Bucula (the ierian name for face mask), was also a trademark amon iberian warriors, and their appearance was supposed to be terrific as well.
ORETANANN CAETRANANN : These caetrati or caetra bearers as the Romans decribed them, were current fisrt-line infantrymen, equipped with the Iberian version of the gladius, shorter than the Roman one. Their caetra was very thick but small as depicted several times of statues of standing warriors. Although these warriors seems to not beeing equipped with body armor or helmet, leather cap was the most current alternative. Alongside the Carthaginian cone-like helmets, and celtic montefortino family helmets, the most current were derived from greek models, mostly attic and Chalcidians. Most of them were heavily crested.
VETTONI CAETRANANN : These light infantrymen were Vettones, a great people closely related to the Lusones, or Lusitanians. For some authors, they were like bloodbrothers, although decribed as another southern kingdom. They were of ancient celtic origin. For the commoners, javelins and a gesso spear were the most affordable equipment, including a leather helmet. This made them versatile and agile enough to play skirmishes. Colors and designs are directly taken from a color reconstitution of a Callaeci (Galician) warrior statue.
CARPENTANI SCUTANANN : The Carpetani were an celtiberian southern kingdom, probably one of the oldest, because of the first wave of the second invasion of Iberia by the celts, probably 550-450 bc. These borrowed many tactics and equipments of the iberians, and frequently raided the neighbouring Turdetanians. The last were capable of fightnin in a punic-greek way, in full-scale battles with phalanxes od spearmen and heavu cavalry. To deal with them, the Carpetanians probably developped some skilled and well-equipped foot lancer units, with a large scutum and helmet for protection.
VASCI DOSIDASKATELI : Inspired by EB units, these absolute elite were the Vasci (proto-basque) king personnal guard. They were completely, heavily armoured, combining scale, chainmail, and leather armors, and used several weapons, spears, javelins, swords, with the last efficience. Like Gallic Soldurii, they were devouted to the end, to death. Such infantry was slow but more than a match for any infantry... Such unit was like a ful warband of chosen champions.
CANTABRI EQUITES : The famous "Cantabrian circle" was a widey used tactic by light mounted skirmishers. Light, because it needed fast moves during a long time without tiring the mounts. This bacically was a tactic for throwing javelins without interruption while avoiding beeing easily strucked themselves. The only way to make it was a fast circle of galloping horses, those who were the nearest throwing their missiles, one after the other at great speeds. It was much more difficult to a unit to strike galloping horses just front of him. This tactic was introduced by the Cantabri, an Iberian confederacy of 11 tribes, in the north coast of spain, just south of the bay of Biscaye. Cantabri were an old people of several ancient roots, pre-indo european and celts. They had several names, including "lusitanians" for Strabo, as they were ancient inhabitants of iberia, Cantabri was a ligurian word meaning "highlander". These were mostly fierce mountaineers. They had relatively small cavalry, but this particular tactic was welle used and impressed the romans during the cantabrian wars. Romans soon adopt these practice for their own light auxiliary cavalry. The Cantabrian circle was very similar to the parthian shot, where the javelins were replaced by bows. These were the ancestors of the famous medieval "jinetes". These light and poor horsemen wore no armor, no helmet, but a single small wicker roundhsield. Once their javelins fired, some of those who have swords could close-fight, but the usual tactic was to draw away. This hit-and-run tactic was appropriate with slow advancing troops. If they engage those in melee, such cavalry will certainly be quickly slaughtered.
ASTURII EQUITES : The Asturian horsemen, neighbours of the Cantabri, were Callaecian (galician) people, widely spread and imitated throughout the peninsula. It was merely a local version of the Tarentine cavalry. Basically these horsemen were skirmishers, able to fight in melee with a falcata and well protected and experienced. They were very fast and skilled, heavyer than the usual Cantabrian cavalry. They served as auxiliaries in various armies of the time, mostly iberians, and of course as mercenaries. They were a part of the hannibal's light cavalry which was used with the numidians, but they were capable of close fighting, and were useful during tactical moves on several battles. If needs, these horsemen were able to fight on foot. Their helmet is relatively well known thanks to an old bronze figurine featuring such horseman, using a high crested round helmet.
HEBEDON KUROS FALARICATI (Celtiberian mercenary swordmen). Celtiberian mercenaries of Hannibal had a tremendous reputation within the most fearsome warriors of the armies of Hannibal. Combining a bellicose behaviour, to a superior endurance and a sturdy and characterial Iberian hot-minded spirit, they combined also, the bravery, love of fightning and honour, and equipment of the Celts. This infantry was devoted and disciplined, the only unit that can outmatch the Roman legionaries man to man. In Africa, a small group of 2000 of these mercenaries held up to the army of Scipio before Zama. They protected the leak of "Africans", being cut in pieces to the last man. Hasdrubal had told his men to boost their morale, that these mercenaries were "invincible" (Polybius, Histories).
HEBEDON KUROS LANCIAROS (celtiberian mercenary spearmen) : Celtiberian mercenaries of Hannibal had a tremendous reputation within the most fearsome warriors of the armies of Hannibal. Combining a bellicose behaviour, to a superior endurance and a sturdy and characterial Iberian hot-minded spirit, they combined also, the bravery, love of fightning and honour, and equipment of the Celts. This infantry was devoted and disciplined, the only unit that can outmatch the Roman legionaries man to man. In Africa, a small group of 2000 of these mercenaries held up to the army of Scipio before Zama. They protected the leak of "Africans", being cut in pieces to the last man. Hasdrubal had told his men to boost their morale, that these mercenaries were "invincible" (Polybius, Histories).
EPONES CAETRANANN (mercenary iberian cavalry) : Famous cavalrymen which were recruited by Hannibal and proved superior in their tactic to many similar scouting units, especially in close-combat.
CAETRANANN (Or Caetrati in Latin): These swordsmen were the most common warriors among the iberians. Their tactic was dictated by speed and surprise, and they were generally hided and must avoid any confrontation in static position du to their very small shield.
GAEDOTOS CUROAS : From the neighbouring Gauls, these skilled spearmen were Gaiso carrier. This current medium spear could be effective both launched and thrusted at close range.
HEBEDON SCUTANANN : These scutari or scutum carriers as they were universally known, were skilled warriors, equipped with various javelins, including the coslty but deadly efficient Falaricati. Their protaction was assured by a thick buckle with leather reinforced with bronze plaques, a bronze disc, usually decorated with a wheel symbol (symbol of war) or the famous iberian lynx.
SARDINIAN ARCHERS : Well equipped and highly skilled, these archers were partially covered by a thick and caracteristical armor of thick black fabric, probably in reinforced linen.
BALEAROS : Known by their name, derived from the punic "Bale Yarch", or "masters in throwing", the Balearic warriors were universally known as very skilled slingers, if not the best. Trained since their very young age, it is said kidswere not allowed to eat until they strike a small target placed on a pole, far away. They were also skilled swordsmen and javelinmen, when used as such.
UNUSED : CELTIBERI LORICATI DEVOTIO (former use of the gaesate entry) - as a devotio falcata in beta2