La carte utilisée pour le projet, Mundus Magnus, allant depuis la scandinavie au nord, l'Irlande à l'ouest, jusqu'aux pays des kushites au sud du nil ou à la corne de l'afrique, en allant jusqu'a l'ouest de l'inde, le nombre de peuples indépendants est presque aussi nombreux de celles des régions de la carte (200). Poir des raisons de limites du nombre d'unités, il ne sera pas possible toutefois, et c'est dommage, de représenter ces peuples par des unités recrutables uniques, mais des unités communes à une certaine aire de recrutement (AOR/ZOR). Ces peuples indépendants ne le sont pas tout a fait non plus, étant souvent dans un lien d'alliance, protectorat, semi-autonomie ou subordination complète vis à vis d'une puissance majeure. Mais c'est un moyen commode de faire figurer toutes les unités "non jouables" du jeu. En réalité, CATW offre environ 450 de ces unités "slaves" (incorrectement dénommés "esclaves" dans le jeu d'origine, par référence simplificatrice et anachronique à la révolte des gladiateurs et de esclaves de Spartacus.
Le terme grec, eu égard à l'époque, "Eleutheroi", les "étrangers", paraissant convenir, ce sont pratiquement toutes les unités du jeu qui sont déclinées en versions "eletheuroi" y compris les unités d'élite. L'accent est très clarement mis sur la difficulté pour une faction régulière de lutter contre ces factions qui les entourent de toute part. Puissantes armées composées notamment de nombreuses unités d'élite, et qui seront une menace pour toute armée traversant son territoire, et retarderont d'autant l'affrontement entre faction régulières. ces "mini-factions" sont innombrables.
This was 2310 years ago...
The map used for the project, Mundus Magnus, ranging from Scandinavia to northern Ireland to the west, to countries south of kushites nil or the Horn of Africa, up to l west of India, the number of independent nations is almost as many of those areas of the map (200). Poir reasons limits the number of units, it will not be possible, however, which is unfortunate, to represent these people by units employ unique, but common units at a certain catchment area (AOR / ZOR). These independent nations are not quite as well, often being in a relationship of alliance, protectorates, semi-autonomy or complete subordination vis-à-vis a major power. But it is a convenient way to include all units "not playable" The reality of the game, CATW will have about 150 of these units both "slaves" (incorrectly referred to as "slaves" in the original game, by reference and simplifying anachronistic in the revolt of gladiators and slaves of Spartacus), and "standard" mercenaries.
The Greek word, given the time, "Eleutheroi", "foreigners" seem to agree, they are almost all units of the game that are broken in versions eletheuroi "including elite units. Emphasis is placed on clare very difficult for a regular faction fight against the factions that surround them from all sides. Mighty armies made up of many elite units and will be a threat to any army passing through its territory, and delaying the confrontation between regular faction. these "mini-factions" are endless.
THE MAURYA :
India is one of the oldest civilizations on earth, going back more than 7,000 years. Although divided from the rest of Asia by the Himalayan mountains, India has for most of its history been fighting numerous and violent wars among itself. During its long history, there could be anywhere from 16 to more than a hundred kingdoms, all fighting each other, making and breaking alliances. In the harsh deserts to the northwest were the fierce Rajput (literally sons of kings) kingdoms, who fought on horseback and camelback. In central India were mighty kingdoms descended from the Aryan invaders who invaded India around 1500 BC. In the jungles to the south were other large and formidable kingdoms, more ancient than the Aryan ones, the original inhabitants of India. In the Deccan Plateau, where the Kingdoms of the north and the south met, were other smaller nations, but with some of the fiercest fighters on the subcontinent. To the east were the kingdoms of Bengal and Assam, to the north was the feared kingdom of Nepal.
Warfare in ancient India centered around the chariot. Indian chariots were nothing like the light, sleek chariots of Egypt. They were massive, made of wood and iron, and intricately decorated in gold. They had four wheels, and typically held two men-the charioteer, and an archer who also had a weapon for hand to hand combat. This archer, standing on the chariot, would be a good six or more feet off the ground, giving him a significant advantage over enemy infantry. Some chariots held more men, the largest could hold seven men. Indian chariots were so large and heavy that they required four to six horses to pull them. Unlike Egyptian chariots, which moved quickly and fired arrows into the enemy ranks, Indian chariots often charged right into melee battle. They crushed enemy soldiers under their wheels, trampled them under the horses, all while the soldier(s) on the chariot fired arrows into them, or fought it out hand to hand.
No description of India’s ancient military is complete without mentioning the elephant. India was the first nation to use the elephant in battle (~1500BC) and the last nation to stop using it in battle (1800’s AD). Wars were frequently fought over territories that had a great deal of elephants. Elephants from the tip of south India and Sri Lanka were the most prized as they were considered the fiercest in battle. Often times, a king’s wealth was measured in how many elephants he owned. A single Indian prince might own more elephants than all of Carthage. According to Kautilya, the army of the Indian emperor Chandragupta Maurya had more than 21,000 elephants. War elephants typically were heavily armored. They had a castle like structure on their back where several warriors and a mahout, who guided the elephant, would be housed. The number of warriors varied anywhere from one to six warriors, and would be armed with an arsenal of weapons, bows and arrows, long lances, javelins, tridents, and a variety of polearms. The elephants themselves had long daggers or swords, sometimes several feet long, attached to their tusks.
The way in elephants were used in battle varied widely as well. One common tactic, used by Porus at the Hydaspes, was to place the elephants a distance apart, anywhere from 40 to 100 feet. These elephants would act like mobile fortresses, where the rest of the army could rally around. Another common tactic, probably the most dangerous and effective one, was to use the elephants to directly assault enemy lines. The elephants would be arranged in a wall formation, and be heavily armored in iron or steel from head to foot. Long steel swords, often coated with poison, would be attached to their tusks. The mahouts would then drive them forward in a coordinated charge, wreaking havoc in enemy ranks. Archers or lancers on top of the elephants would pick off enemy soldiers as well. One king even went as far as to train his elephants to swing heavy iron balls on chains with their trunks. The very sight of a wall of heavily armored elephants charging, whirling huge iron balls with their trunks, their tusks tipped with poisoned swords, the soldiers on the elephant wielding enormous lances, would often cause the enemy to break ranks and flee.
The cavalry of Indian armies is, for the most part, not noteworthy. The cavalry of the Middle Eastern and Arab armies were probably superior. There are exceptions though. The Rajput cavalry was extremely skilled, and man for man, was more than a match for the Mughal cavalry, as they proved several times. They were lightly armored, and moved extremely swiftly. Armed with a light curved sword and a small circular shield, they could charge and fight with incredible speed. Many carried bows and arrows, and were expert archers. The Rajput army was almost entirely composed of cavalry, and were powerful enough that they were able to keep the Muslim forces in check for many years. In the other armies of India cavalry were also used, sometimes in large numbers, but rarely were they equipped with bows and arrows. Their role was either to protect the elephants and chariots, or to charge into melee battle.
The bulk of the Indian army, and most other armies in the world, were the infantry, or foot soldiers. The infantry were equipped with a huge variety of weapons, which differed hugely across India. Probably the most common weapon was the sword, but even this came in hundreds of shapes across India. Indian archers used a bow similar to the English longbow, in that it was as tall as the person using it. However, Indian bows were also recurved. Armies in India were typically larger than those of Europe. It was common to see armies of hundreds of thousands fighting on the battlefield, even thought the kingdoms themselves might be small in size. As infantry formed the majority of the army, a typical battle would look like a sea of infantry and cavalry fighting, while the chariots and elephants stood out.
India was one of the first nations to implement tactics, divisions, and formations. Armies did not simply rush out onto the battlefield; there were commanders who carefully put their massive armies in intricate formations. Some formations were: Chakra (wheel) Vyuha, Suchi (needle) Vyuha, Chayana (hawk) Vyuha and Mala (garland), and Garuda (eagle). Another one I read about recently was the lotus formation, where the archers would be on the inside, and the infantry and cavalry would be arranged like a lotus flower, protecting them.
Their armor differed greatly as well. Some kingdoms, especially in south India wore no armor, because of the extreme heat. Others wore tough sturdy armor, made of interlocking iron, steel, and leather plates. Many warriors wore no armor, but instead wore silk clothing. This actually worked to block arrows, which couldn’t penetrate the silk fibers.
Ancient India has been home to many unique weapons. The world’s first all steel bow was made in India. Some other weapons from the subcontinent are the famous kukri knife, the tiger claw weapon used by assassins, tridents, the long handled mace, swords, axes, and spears of all shapes and sizes.
The Army of The Mauryan Empire :
The Mauryan empire was the first empire that managed to unite all of India. This was partially because of their complex army structure. Like most ancient Indian armies, the Mauryan army had 4 types of troops- elephant (gaja), chariot (ratha), cavalry (turanga), and infantry (pada).
The army was broken into many units. The smallest unit was called a patti, and had 1 chariot, 1 elephant, 3 cavalry and 5 infantry. The elephant and chariot would typically be in the center with the cavalry and infantry surrounding them. Three patti made up a Sena mukha, and three Sena Mukha made up a Gulma. Other divisions were the Gana, Vahini, Pratana, Camu and Ani kini, each of which was three times as big as the one preceding it. The Aksauhini was composed of ten Ani kini, and was the largest unit in an army.
The Mauryan army had multiple Aksauhini's. The standing army had three-quarter million troops, one of the largest armies in the world at the time.
A variety of formations were used in the Mauryan army. Formations were known as vyuha, each one had a center, two flanks and two wings. There were thirty main vyuha used, divided into four main categories. One example of a vyuha would be the Padma vyuha or lotus formation.
It would be easy to visualise the 'padma vyuha' if it is imagined as a six pointed star. The Deputy Commanders-in-Chief would be placed at each outer point of the petals and at the inner end, where each end of lotus petal joins with the other, to form an inner-circle resembling the corolla of the lotus, the Commanders-in-Chief would be stationed. The space between any two 'petals' is the only access to reach the centre of the 'lotus' where the Supreme Commander was placed. If a contingent of enemy soldiers moved between any two petals for this purpose, the petals would close in and crush the invader like the powerful tentacles of a crab.
The Garuda Vyuha or Eagle formation was another commonly used formation.
The Garuda Vyuha had a 'beak' where the best elite Kshatriya soldiers would be placed in tight wedge formation. The 'head,' behind the beak had a small contigent of reserves, also of good quality. Often, war elephants would be placed in the beak and head. Two broad 'wings' would sweep out behind the head, with the swiftest troops - the chariots and cavalry at the outside. Behind the wings, the body, would consist of reserves.
Some other formations:
Suchi vyuha - Needle formation
Chayana vyuha - Hawk formation
Mala vyuha - Garland formation
Karuncha vyuha - Heron formation
Makara vyuha - Fish formation
Padma vyuha - Lotus formation
Kurma vyuha - Turtle formation
Trishula vyuha - Trident formation
Chakra vyuha - Wheel or Discus formation
Garuda vyuha - Eagle formation
The Mauryan army was composed of people all over the subcontinent. In addition, Chandragupta Maurya did not discriminate against different castes, as he was of low caste himself (reputedly he was the son of a peacock tamer ). As a result, there were soldiers in his army from all castes, making the army very diverse.
The core of the army was composed of Uttarapathian warriors, from central and western India. Uttarapatha had many militaristic peoples – like the Kambojas, Yavanas, Sakas and Vardas. Other peoples in the Mauryan army were the Maghadas, Assamese, and Cheras. Even the Nagas (literally serpents, because they worshiped cobras), a mystical people to the east, were incorporated into the army.
Karamutka Sainika (Javeliniers Maurya) : Le gros des troupes légères des Mauryans, outre les archers, étaient l'infanterie de javeliniers de levée de la caste des Vaishya ("Karamukta", javelot+ "Sainika" Combattant), capables de s'approcher de plus près de l'ennemi et de combattre ensuite au corps à corps avec leur traditionnelle machette. Les javelots taillés en bois de canne étaient solides et effilés, provoquant des blessures graves. Ils se protégaient par un léger bouclier en peau de raie séché sur une armature de bois, très épais.
Karamutka Sainika (Mauryan Javelimen) : The bulk of the light troops of the Mauryan, in addition to the archers were infantry javeliniers for relief from the Vaishya caste ("Karamukta" javelin + "Sainika" fighter), able to approach closer to the enemy and then to fight in melee with their traditional machete. Javelins carved wooden cane was solid and tapered, causing serious injury. They are protected by a shield of stingray dried skin on a frame of wood, very thick and light as the same time.
Sainika Ksipaka (Archers Maurya) : Les levées d'Archers Mauryans étaient le support désigné de toute bataille... Issus des castes communes (tandis que les pemiers avaient un arc en bambou rudimentaire et une machette comme arme de poing. Ces archers avaient l'avantage d'être très nombreux et ainsi de couvrir à distance les javeliniers qui avançaient en première ligne. Ils se joignaient ensuite au reste de l'infanterie pour l'assaut.
Sainika Ksipaka (Mauryan Archers) : The Mauryan Archers levies were designated to support any battle... They came from the commoner caste, while the average had a rudimentary bamboo bow and a machete as a melee weapon. The Archers had the advantage of being very numerous and cover at a distance the javeliniers who progressed on first line. They then joined the rest of the infantry to the assault.
Patti Kauntika (Mauryan spearmen) : Recrutés parmi les levées des Castes communes (Vaishya), ces combattants assez pauvres mais disciplinés utilisaient une pique de trois mètres en bois de bambou affûté, parfois renforcé d'une pointe de fer. leur bouclier était en peau de raie ou en bois et de grande taille. Faisant partie de la base de toute armée, et même de toute unité de base ("patti"), ces combattants passaient à l'attaque au pas cadencé ou en courant pour renforcer l'assaut des épéistes. Leur équipement était basique, mais ils possédaient le cas échéant une machette pour combattre de près. Leur entraînement était relativement succint, mais ils étaient très bien encadré par des troupes de piquiers lourdes et officiers de la caste des guerriers, les menant et leur permettant des tactiques extrêmement nombreuses et complexes, comme le padma vyuha ou "lotus", le Garuda Vyuha ou l'aigle. Chaque Vyuha comprenait une centre et deux flancs, et deus ailes étirées au besoin. Les unités étaient hiérarchisées, allant du Gulma (45 hommes d'infanterie dont à peu près un tiers de piquiers) à l'Aksauhini, le corps d'armée, comptant dix fois 11 000 hommes d'infanterie (10 Ani kini, soit 110 000 hommes d'infanterie, dont environ 33 000 piquiers. leurs longues piques se révélaient relativement efficaces contre la cavalerie et les chars, moins contre les éléphants.
Patti Kauntika (Mauryan spearmen) : Drawn from the lifting common caste (Vaishya), the fighters fairly poor but disciplined used a spade three meters Bamboo sharp, sometimes reinforced with a hint of iron. shield their skin was skate or wood and large. As part of the basis of any army, and even any basic unit ( "Patti"), the fighters went to the attack or not clocked in order to strengthen the current onslaught of swordsman. Their equipment was basic, but if any had a machete for close combat. Their training was relatively brief, but they were very well supported by local heavy pikemen and officers of the caste of warriors, and leading them to their tactics extremely numerous and complex, as Vyuha or padma "lotus", the Garuda Vyuha or the eagle. Each Vyuha included a center and two flanks, and deus wings stretched as needed. The units were prioritized, from Gulma (45 men infantry which roughly a third of pikemen) in Aksauhini, the Army Corps, with ten men after 11 000 infantry (10 Ani kini, 110 000 infantry men, including about 33 000 pikemen. piques their long proved to be relatively effective against cavalry and tanks, less against elephant.
Kshatriya Kauntika Ksipaka (Archers d'élite/piquiers) : Les Archers d'élite Mauryans sont combattants réguliers entraînés depuis leur plus jeune âge, de la caste des guerriers (Ksatriya). Ils savent manier outre l'arc long de bambou (jusqu'à deux mètres) des Ksipaka (archers), la pique (Kauntika) et disposent d'une épée ainsi que d'un poignard. Combattants endurcis et polyvalents, ils sont parfaitement autonomes et combattent d'abord en arrière-gade, puis selon la formation choisie, peuvent renforcer les troupes de choc ou repousser la cavalerie ennemie grâce à leur cohésion et discipline.
Kshatriya Kauntika Ksipaka (Elite Archers/spearmen) :
From the caste of warriors, these elite bowmen enjoyed a special status. This caste was the most honorable before the Brahmans and the Mauryan elite fighters are regularly trained from an early age, to beeing part of the caste of warriors (Ksatriya). They also handle the longbow of bamboo (up to two meters) of Ksipaka (archers), the long thrusting spear (Kauntika) and have a sword and a dagger. Hardened fighters and versatile, they are fully autonomous and fight back in first-gade, and then depending on program, can strengthen the shock troops of cavalry or repel the enemy by their cohesion and discipline.
Asiheti Sainika (Epeistes Maurya) : Les plus solides et expérimentés guerriers levés permi la caste des Vaishya, sorte de classe moyenne civile, étaient armés d'une épée et combattaient au contact, lançant au besoin des javelots légers en canne. Ces épées (Asiheti) étaient de toutes formes, dépendant du peuple dont ils étaient issus, dérivées pour la plupart de simple machettes utilitaires. de bonne qualité et à lame large, leur coups de taille étaient redoutables. Ils se protégaient grâce à un petit bouclier en bois recouvert de peau d'éléphant ou en carapace de tortue. Volontaires et agressifs, ils étaient cependant une proie facile face aux archers adverses.
Asiheti Sainika (Mauryan swordsmen) : The most solid and experienced warriors raised allowed the Vaishya caste, a sort of middle class civil, were armed with a sword and fought on contact, throwing javelins necessary light cane. These swords (Asiheti) were all forms, depending on the people from which they were derived for most of simple utilities machetes. good quality and large blade, the shot size was daunting. They are protected through a small wooden shield covered with skin of an elephant or turtle. Volunteers and aggressive, but they were easy prey to face enemy archers.
Kshatryia Kauntika (Mauryan elite spearmen-swordsmen) : From the caste of warriors, the fighters of elite enjoyed a special status. Caste was the most honorable before the Brahmins and their status entitled them to have command posts, and aspire to the highest office. This offered the privilege to work and to be served, was offset by training very hard and their obligation to defend the kingdom with their lives if they were sovereign in their order. Besides the elite archers, heavy infantry of Ksatriya consisted of pikemen fought in contact with a good sword and a dagger. The shield could be made of metal or wood reinforced elephant hide, and they wore armor ften scales or band iron intertwined on chest. Their heads were protected by a cap iron under a large turban. Any warlord could count on them to be cut into pieces without letting go until the last inch of land to the enemy.
Kshatryia Kauntika (Mauryan elite spearmen-swordsmen) : Issus de la caste des Guerriers, ces combattants d'élite bénéficiaient d'un statut particulier. Leur caste était la plus honorable avant celle des Brahmanes et leur statut les autorisaient à avoir des postes de commandement, et aspirer aux plus hautes fonctions. Ce privilège qui les dispensaient de travailler et de se faire servir, était contrebalancé par leur entraînement très dur et leur obligation de défendre le Royaume au prix de leur vie si leur souverain leur en faisait commande. A côté des archers d'élite, l'infanterie lourde des Ksatriya était composée de piquiers combattant au contact avec une épée de bonne qualité et une dague. Leur bouclier pouvait être en métal ou en bois renforcé de peau d'éléphant, et ils portaient ouvent une armure d'écailles ou de bande de fer entrecroisées sur la poitrine. Leur tête était protégée par une calotte de fer enturbannée. N'importe quel chef de guerre pouvait compter sur eux pour se faire tailler en pièces jusqu'au dernier sans lâcher un pouce de terrain à l'adversaire.
Sainika Gaja : Les Elephants de guerre de l'empire de Changragupta Maurya étaient véritablement, comme depuis des siècles, la pierre angulaire de son armée. Ils étaient en très grand nombre et appuyaient de manière très efficace le reste des troupes, légères pour la plupart, et firent une si grande impression sur Alexandre le grand et ses généraux que ses successeurs furent de fidèles clients, emmenant ces grandes bêtes jusqu'en Italie sous Pyrrhus. La grande majorité d'entre eux n'étaient pas cuirassés, mais peints et harnachés de manière somptueuse, de manière à rappeler la magnificence du souverain. Leur efficacité était redoutable contre toute infanterie, même les phalange furent mises en difficulté par la puissance redoutable de ces bêtes, qui emportaient tout sur leur passage. La tour était réservée en général à des archers ou des javeliniers qui pouvaient ainsi "arroser" l'ennemi en toute sécurité.
Sainika Gaja (Mauryan elephants) : The War Elephants of the Mauryan empire of Changragupta were truly, for centuries, the cornerstone of his army. They were in very large numbers and support very efficiently the rest of the troops, for most minor, and made a great impression on Alexander the Great and his generals that his successors were faithful customers, taking up these big beasts Pyrrhus in Italy. The vast majority of them were not armoured, but painted and harnessed so sumptuous, so as to recall the magnificence of the sovereign. Their effectiveness was formidable, even against any infantry phalanx were even put in difficulty by the fearsome power of these beasts, who took everything in their path. The tower was usually reserved for archers or javeliniers that could pepper the enemy in safety.
Kshatriya Ratha (Chariots de guerre Maurya) : Les Maurya étaient parmi les peuples qui utilisaient encore le char, alors qu'il était obsolète à l'ouest. Ils opéraient au départ en masse avec les éléphants, au centre du dispositif, pour briser le centre adverse, mais rapidement, bien avant lla venue d'Alexandre le grand, leur forme et leur usage avait changé. L'armée de Porus à Hydapses en 321 av.jc. comptait en effet 300 chariots qui étaient tirés par quatre chevaux chacun, ave six homes à bord. Très larges, ils permettaient à cinq archers de faire feu sur les ailes de l'armée et de se replier rapidement si besoin. Le rôle de bousculer le centre ennemi était désormais entièrement dévolu aux éléphants depuis le Ve siècle au moins.
Kshatriya Ratha (Mauryan War chariots) :
The Mauryan were among people who were still using the cart, as in the west, during the classical period (V-VI century bc). They operated in mass start with the elephant in the center of the device, to break the opposing center, but quickly the time of the arrival of Alexander the Great, their form and their use had changed. The army of Porus to Hydapses in 321 av.jc. were in fact 300 heavy cartsthat were pulled by four horses each, with six men on board, and said to be not fightning machines (fire support). Very broad, they allowed five archers to shoot the wings of the army and retreat quickly if necessary. The task of disrupt the center of the enemy was now entirely devoted to elephants, since a long time.
Kshatriya Turanga (Cavalerie Maurya) : La cavalerie Indienne était une composante essentielle, bien que minoritaire de l'armée Maurya. la proportion de la cavalerie était de un pour dix à peu près par rapport à l'infanterie. (rapports de la bataille d'Hydapses, 323 av.jc, Porus alignait 30 000 hommes d'infanterie pour 4000 cavaliers, 200 éléphants et 300 chars de grande taille (embarquant 6 hommes, des archers, mais ne combatant pas au contact). Ces cavaliers légers portaient des vêtements en soie, de simples cardiophylax en bronze ou en fer, et combattaient au contact avec des lancers de bambou légères et leur épée. La cavalerie maurya était réputée et très rapide. Certaines unités tinrent tête au scythes et beaucoup plus tard aux musulmans.
Kshatriya Turanga (Mauryan cavalry) : The Indian cavalry was an important component, although a minority of the Mauryan army. The normal proportion of cavalry was ten to one for almost compared to the infantry. (Reports from the Battle of Hydapses, 323 BC, Porus had 30 000 infantry men for 4000 horsemen, 200 elephants and 300 large chariots (carrying 6 men, archers, for backing support). These riders were wearing light clothing in silk, just cardiophylax bronze or iron, and fought in contact with throws light bamboo and sword. The Maurya cavalry was famous for beeing very fast. Some head units held the scythians, Indo-Scythians, and much more later Muslims.
Kshatriya Atmaraksaka Turanga (Cavalerie d'élite) : La cavalerie lourde Maurya n'était guère différente de la cavalerie standard dans sa façon de combattre. Elle était rapide et agile, très bien entraînée, et combattait principalement au contact. Elle restait cependant beaucoup moins lourde que la cavalerie noble des steppes. Les Atmaraksaka étaient les gardes du corps du général en chef, c'était la position la plus prestigieuse parmi les Kshatriya et une excellente place pour devenir officier.
Kshatriya Atmaraksaka Turanga (Mauryan elite bodyguard cavalry) :
Maurya elite cavalry was not very different from the standard cavalry in the way of fighting. It was fast and agile, well-trained, and fought mainly on contact. It was much less severe than the noble cavalry steppes. The Atmaraksaka were the bodyguards of General in Chief, was the most prestigious position among the Kshatriya and an excellent place to become an officer.
GREEK INDEPENDANT PEOPLES :
In catw the greeks cities are not playable. They are not also weak slaves factions, far from this, they are powerful mini-factions spread throughout the mediterranean, and any play would have troubles with them. First, this is the greek leagues. In 300 bc these leagues were relatively weak, although beneficing from the struggle between the aging Diadochis still alive. Antigonos led relative autonomy to these cities in order to keep a buffer rather than enemies in his south. Among these peoples were the mighty Spartans, the Athenians, Corinthian, Theban, and Aetolian peoples, but also the Cretans, and asia minor kingdoms like the Phrygians, Carians, and apowerful thallassocracy, the Rhodians. In the west, some cities in magna grecia not under epirote influence, and Syracuse... They have many specific units (hidden resources) than can be recruited as part of the aor by any faction, and a large set of units od good quality, not "armies of peasants", a challenge for any player.
AKONTISTAI : As this light infantry was mostly made of peasants and locals, they could have been recruited amongst all areas controlled by Lysimachus, from thrace to asia minor. But on the long-term, and for their natural skills, most of them were thracian, Bythinian and phrygians, using the usual soft cap, boots, wicker and pelt crescent shield. They were given a bunch of light javelins, not the kind used by usual "peltast", as these last were of poor quality but easy to produce in quantities. Their main secondary weapon was the akinakes or dagger-like short weapons of this kind. The Akinakes was an affordable dagger used by the persians and the thracians as well. As such, it was widely spread in all Lysimachus kingdom.
SPHENDONETAI : Also widely used by Thracians and levies from asia minor, the affordable slingers were never short of ammunition, and a single short could have been ever deadly. Their range was limited to 50-60 meters, but the Rhodians soon learned to deal with the great range of persian archers with lead bullet, carefully shaped, which were not easy to produce but get the best range never seen for this kind of weapon.
TOXOTAI : The most renown archers were found in the east, especially the Phrygians, but in Thrace and local villages inhabited by ancient greeks throughout western asia minor were hunters levied for war, with some reasonnable skills but a poor equipment, although an akinakes, for those who can afford it, was always welcomed. Nearly all thracian tribes widely used archers as a complement for their kind of warfare.
PELTASTAI : The bread an butter of successors army auxiliaries, the native macedonian or greek peltasts were equipped with the classic thureos, light helmet, and for the most wealthy, greaves. These were regular units, not the major part of this kind of troops, still filled largely by thracian and bythinian mercenaries.
HOPLITAI HAPLOI : A rather classic militia hoplite, it was common for major cities both in south-western thrace and thracian greek colonies, and in western asia minor, in all helladic cities. They were given no armor but a wood large aspis, a short sword and affordable old helmets like the chalcidian model. A valuable infantry, quite difficute to break if the flanks were well protected.
HOPLITAI : Medium line hoplites from the Hellade and some thracian coastal cities like Byzantium. They could have been encountered in Pergamum, Halicarnassos, Ephesus, Miletos, Lemnos, Chios, Cnidus, Laodicea, Sardis, Samos... They used the classic panoply of the greek golden age, including linen or bronze armor, xyston and xyphos or kopis, greaves, and decorated helmet. The most common was still the chalcidian model, but the Phrygian was also widely used.
ATHENAIOI HOPLITAI : Classic greek world hoplites, the Athenian citizens still formed a well-equipped and well-trained infantry, proud of its military past, although Athens always counted more on its naval power and engaged lots of mercenaries rather than use its own citizens in war. But this tradition still lived in 300 bc, and the Athenians, although under direct influence by the macedonians, were capable of raising thousands of hoplites. Of course they were many symbols on Athenian shields, medusa was the most current, but also bullshead, birds, lions, and of course the sacred Owl, Athena, Zeus bolts, and Neptune trident were popular. The Achean league was an old confederacy of greek city states, prior, during and after the persians invasions. In 300 bc, this was still the most important alliance in the greek world, a necessary counterweight to the growing power of the diadochis and hellenistic kingdoms. But this alliance was based on religious common identity and practices rather than a real geographical reality although its frontiers could be defined. In 200 bc, it was still a political and military force to be reckoned with, although the center of this was the pelopponesians cities, excluding Sparta which was part of the Aetolian league, a rival alliance but with more distended links as the two majors cities and military powers were Sparta and Athens, not so long before deadly enemies.
Athenian militay power was lowered by the macedonian rule. In 300 bc, the city was part of the kingdom of macedon, after having lost its independence after the defeat of chaeronea in 338 bc. 38 years after, with struggles in the macedonian kingdom, Athens gained some freedom but was no more a political force. Nevertheless, the Athenians hoplites were very well equipped citizens, with a past of glorious military history, when the city was the center of the huge league of delos.
SPARTIATAI HOPLITAI : The Spartans (or Lacedemonians) were still proudly independant in 300 bc, everybody in the greek world still remembered with a smile the famous and typical Laconic "If"..." when responding to Philip II threat about its armies marching in the peloponnese. However, at this time the Spartans, due to their draconian society model were a few. They could raise only a fraction of the forces that they could have mustered in the past. Citizenship was not opened and the demographic decline after the peloponnesian wars was still hardly resented. The spartans were a few, but their skills were unmatched at these time, and their traditional hoplitic tactic was, thanks to a sheer life discipline, training and dedication, the top of the edge of any military power at this time. Spartan society had a tremendous reputation in the greek world and beyond (Even the Romans boys played to be leonidas at the thermopylae), and laconophilia is ever living although having an infamous example for the early nazis... After the lycurgos reforms, and the harsh pelopponesian war, and depite beeing the vanquisher, Sparta was still searching hegemonia in the pelopponesian peninsula itself. After 362 bc, though, the historic leading of lakedaimon was over (the peloponnesian league came to an end in 371 with the decisive Leuctra defeat), and the city itslef enters a long decline, never fully recovering the losses. Spartan society was divided between the citizens, freed of labor, but with a life dedicated to war training, the periokoi, which were non-citizens, but respected skilled labor and the vast majority of helots, unskilled labors treated as slaves, as the krypteia ritual testimonies about.\n\nThe specificity of the spartan society created pure citizen-warriors, which skills levels unknown at the time. All spartan citizens males in age were fierce warriors. But the unflexible "draconian laws" made the city itself population slowly declining (spartan citizenship was inherited by blood). Neither Philip or Alexander attempted to conquest the city, most by the fact that the city, atlhough still considered itself as the "defender of the hellenism", was no more a threat than by fear of its warriors. A famous anecdote about laconian talk, take place when Philip II sent a message to Sparta saying "If I enter Laconia, I will level Sparta to the ground," the Spartans responded with the single, terse reply: "If." Sparta in 300 bc was still independant and controls roughly the southern peloponnese. Later, it was for years a rebellious member of the achaean league, a greek counterweight to the hellenic superpowers of the time. But although beeing a few, the spartans still keeps a symbolic and were still a fightning force to be reckoned with. The spartans converted themselves to macedonian phalanx-style battletactics from the kleomenis III reforms only, in 226 bc.
CORINTHOI HOPLITAI : The city of Corinth played a great part of the origin of the peloponnesian wars and its navy was still impressive, as its strategic position. The city-state of Corinth was an old, proud, powerful but also very prosperous city-state, due to its location between three trade roads crossing the corinthian territory, through the north cities of Boeotia, aetolia and thessalia, the peloponnesus to the south and attica in the east, with the benefits of the isthmus trading. It was in constant rivalry in the 5th century with Thebes and Athens, enduring battles at just one day march (78 km from athens). Corinth was the first city to intruduce the completely enclosed helmet which take her name, and Themistocles launched the first triremes. Corinth was able to launch new colonies throughout the mediterranean, it was also a center of art, architecture, philosophy and well-known taste for luxury, which was proverbial. The Corinthian order was heavily used in roman art.\n\nIn the peloponnesian wars, which began by a struggle between Corinth and Corcyra, the city-state was en enemy of the athenian (delos) league, allied with sparta. But after this long struggle, which saw the pelopponesian league eventually victorious, Corinth and Thebes began to be dissatisfacted with sparta's hegemony and let the "corinthian war" begins. Philip II of Macedon choosed it was time to invade and submitting these weakened cities. Corinth lost her political leadership under macedonian rule, although she was always the strong arm of the corinthian league against persian power in the east. As others city-states, wealthy citizens of Corinth were disciplined and though hoplites. Favourite corinthian shield symbol was the medusa head.
LYCIOI HOPLITAI :
SYRACUSOI HOPLTAI :
HIPPAKONTISTAI : Cheaper than the prodromoi, which were basically well, if not heavily equipped mounted peltasts, thracian hippakontists would have been local peoples, wealthy enough to afford a horse, and fight with a light equipment. Since the native Thracians were definitely the best ast this kind of warfare, they were probably the main part of recruitments.
macedon prodromoi javspear
THRAIKOI SARISSPHOROI :
Above all, Mundus Magnus is well-deserved in regions, with deep forests and fearsome Celts and Germans, a large area in central Europe ready to be conquered. But in 300 bc, it was the informal "empire" of the Celts, which stretched from Hibernia to the black sea. Thousands of tribes, some as powerful as the most impressive nations, with a still mysterious culture, religion, and progressive social behaviour, but also a remarkable sense of worksmanship, knowledge and even impressive science, and of course, war in their blood. So were these Celts, or "Keltoi" as they were known in the "civilized" world. All these things are slowly discovered from the last 30 years. In CATW, as far there is room for them, you'll have to cope with impressive slave armies, both with quality and quantity. According to the 100 units of the slave faction, mercs included, we choosed to show them with no less than 12-15 units. Lands to conquer ? Pain and tears instead in catw...
ATECTI : For those familiar with EB names, these are the corrected "peasant levies" thanks to Geneva lights. A simple gaiso, an average shield, probably in wicker and planks, no training and poor skills. They were levied to be spared as a reserve and to protect the baggage train.
ACUADRETTOI : Young javelinmen, first line, long-range skirmishers equipped with light javelins and a dagger.
SAITORES : These average levied archers were hunters, recruted for war and used on the first line, first time action. They were skilled but relatively inaccurante, medium-range and poorely armed.
GAESATOI : Slightly more skilled and efficient than Bagaudas, these poor warriors were used as first-line, medium-range skirmishers, with several gaisos and one for thrusting. They were naked or semi-naked according to their need to be agile and fast as any skirmisher, but with heavyer weapons.
ACUABAGAUDAS : More skilled, versatile and faster then the average Bagaudas, which were trained peasants, these were the most active and efficient part of these large amounts of all non-warrior troops.
UERAGRI : These warriors were the spearhead of any flanking action, able to support the heavy skirmishers in their advance and counter any similar attacks by the enemy, or support spearmen in the centre.
GABALLEXCINGOI : These heavy sirmishers were gaballa-throwers, a very heavy launching weapon, heavyer than even a gaiso. It was not however usable as spears because of their very long, thin and sharp spearhead. Like the roman pila, they have a short-range action with a tremendous power of arrest, heavy percussion and ability to pierce any armor, shield or helmet.
DRWDAE CINGETOI : These were warriors dedicated to the protection of the druids, aristocrats which sometimes went to the battlefield and played several tasks, from sacrificial ceremonies to surgery and councillors. As aristocrats, they wuld have clients, and their own foot guards: professional, well equipped and very skilled warriors.
UERGAISATOI : These heavy, very hardy warriors were veterans which choose to fight naked on the battlefield. Although their status would have made them protected, slow spearmen like average Cingetoi, these warriors were wealthy, aged, impressive swordsmen, equipped with a gaiso used both for thursting over the shield or to launch on the enemy at short distance. Late Gallic tactics implied mobility and specially built torsaded chains with a simple but ingeniously build suspension system, allowed the sword to never encumbered the leg when running.
GAISEREDUS : These light cavalrymen were fully gaiso-equipped, a combination similar to the acuabagaudas.
GAISEREPOS : Classical Celtic medium cavalry, these were, skilled, versatile, fast and agile, equipped with gaisos, sword and a lancia. Celtic cavarly like this was highly praised as a mercenary unit.
RIGEPOREDES : The archetypal aristocratic heavy cavalry of the celtic kingdoms and tribes, surrounding the elected chief of the whole people. They were fully cladded in impressive chainmails, with lancias and heavy horses bought at very high prices to mediterranean or even far eastern providers. A beautiful imported horse was always a fascinating present, a true royal gift for any aristocrat, which have a true devotion to their horses and great skills.
ISSEDONES : Celtic chariots were always posted to the rear wing of the celtic battlelines in 300 bc. They disappeared far on the sides, and then appeared as suddenly on the back of the enemy, with really efficient speed, horrible noise, and deadly action.
GAISATOI CUROAS : Mercenary spearmen or great skills, they made the gaiso their first action weapon.
EXCINGOI CUROAS : These professional swordsmen of high skills were the most offensive mercenaries around. Although not naked, they fought with launching gaiso and a longsword, high skils and love for war and desperate thirst for glory.
ACUCINGETOI CUROAS : These fast swordsmen were well protected and highly skilled, forming a perfect breakthrough infantry unit.
CUROGAISATOI : Mercenary Gaesatae were still impressive spearmen and swordsmen, which were well-described during the battle of telamon. They were apparently Rhône vallry mercenaries, paid at hight price, and most of them fought bravely and partly naked. There is no way that the "Gaesatae" could be a people or a kind of mercenary. They were "gaiso bearers", which was never an explanation of their status or skills.
MORI GAESUM : Impressive Helvetic spearmen and swordsmen, these slow-paced noble or wealthy warriors were the best infantry the Helevetii could muster. As other alpime units, they were well-inspired by the Greek (Etruscan) way of fightning and retained, even from the time of the cesarean conquest, their old-fashioned way of fightning and even equipment, with typical Italic-Etruscan helmets, bronze armors, greaves... "Mori Gaesum" (the roman name) could have been a "sea of spears", a testimony of what were the impressive celtic battlelines in 300 bc, the golden age of the celts.